Rangées de graines.. © INRA, Elena Schweitzer © Fotolia

Our results

Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Human milk digestion in the preterm infant: impact of technological treatments
  3. Research & Innovation 2017 - For Food and Biobased Products
  4. The way in which proteins aggregate when heated may change their sensitising potency
  5. Enhancing the viability of spray-dried probiotic bacteria by stimulating their stress tolerance
  6. To stick or not to stick? Pulling pili sheds new light on biofilm formation
  7. When biopolymers selfassemble: a balance between energy and entropy.
  8. Mimicking the gastrointestinal digestion in a lab-on-a-chip:the microdigester
  9. How a milk droplet becomes a powder grain
  10. Research & Innovation 2016 - For Food and Bioproducts
  11. A new process for the biorefining of plants
  12. Under the UV light : the bacterial membrane
  13. Reverse engineering or how to rebuild ... bread!
  14. Green Chemistry: a step towards lipid production in yeast
  15. Individually designed neo-enzymes for antibacterial vaccines
  16. Multi-scale mechanical modelling: from the nanometric scale to the macroscopic properties of bread crumb
  17. Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats
  18. Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes
  19. The discrete role of ferulic acid in the assembly of lignified cell wall
  20. Eco-design of composites made from wood co-products
  21. Analysis of volatile compounds enables the authentication of a poultry production system
  22. Nanoparticles as capping agents for biopolymers microscopy
  23. Pasteurisation, UHT, microfiltration...All the processes don't affect the nutritional quality of milk in the same way
  24. Integration of expert knowledge applied to cheese ripening
  25. Controlling cheese mass loss during ripening
  26. The shape memory of starch
  27. Research & Innovation 2015 - For Food & Biobased Products
  28. Behaviour of casein micelles during milk filtering operations
  29. Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  30. Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings
  31. An innovative process to extract bioactive compounds from wheat
  32. Diffusion weighted MRI: a generic tool for the microimaging of lipids in food matrices
  33. Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry
  34. New enzyme activity detectors made from semi-reflective biopolymer nanolayers
  35. Improving our knowledge about the structure of the casein micelle
  36. Heating milk seems to favour the development of allergy in infants
  37. Fun with Shape
  38. Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants
  39. SensinMouth, when taste makes sense
  40. A decision support system for the fresh fruit and vegetable chain based on a knowledge engineering approach
  41. SOLEIL casts light on the 3D structure of proteins responsible for the stabilisation of storage lipids in oilseed plants
  42. A close-up view of the multi-scale protein assembly process
  43. Controlling the drying of infant dairy products by taking water-constituent interactions into account
  44. Polysccharide nanocrystals to stabilise pickering emulsions
  45. Discovery of new degradative enzymes of plant polysaccharides in the human intestinal microbiome
  46. A durum wheat flour adapted for the production of traditional baguettes
  47. Virtual modelling to guide the construction of « tailored-made » enzymes
  48. How far can we reduce the salt content of cooked meat products?
  49. Diffusion of organic substances in polymer materials: beyond existing scaling laws
  50. Smart Foams : various ways to destroy foams on demand !
  51. Dates, rich in tannins and yet neither bitter nor astringent
  52. Sodium content reduction in food
  53. Research & Innovation 2014

Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings

Industrial cheese ripening rooms (up to 2000 m3) are constantly ventilated so that the temperature and the relative humidity are as homogenous as possible in the chamber in order to obtain uniform ripening of the cheeses. The energy cost for this ventilation is high. It is estimated that it represents approximately 50 to 55% of the total costs linked to ripening. In order to reduce this consumption, a sequential ventilation system for ripening rooms was developed using a Saint-Nectaire AOC cheese model within the framework of the European Truefood Integrated Project. Savings for an industrial drying facility may reach 50 to 60% of the electricity consumption linked to ventilation without any impact on the quality of the ripened cheese. Sequential ventilation must now be tested on other types of cheeses and other sizes of ripening rooms to validate its use within an industrial framework.

Cave d'affinage du comté (fromagerie Arnaud, Poligny, Jura).. © INRA, SLAGMULDER Christian

The energy cost of cheese ripening

Cheeses are ripened in extremely large industrial ripening chambers (up to approximately 2,000 m3), whose temperature and relative humidity are automatically controlled.  For this purpose, ripening chambers require a considerable degree of continuous ventilation (air circulation) in order to ensure the best homogeneity possible within the chamber and the uniform ripening of the products.  The portion of energy costs for this ventilation is on the order of 50 to 55% of the total expenses linked to ripening.  Within the framework of the European Truefood Integrated Project, management strategies for ripening chambers aimed at reducing ventilation costs were studied, particularly by adopting sequential ventilation procedures.  The impact of this approach on ripening dynamics and the final quality of the cheeses was also examined, using a Saint-Nectaire AOC cheese model.

Fractionating ventilation over time: an 18% cost reduction for pilot Saint Nectaire ripening chambers  

Ripening trials with sequential ventilation were carried out, first at the pilot scale and then, given the results, extended to the industrial scale within the framework of a Truefood project demonstration activity.  In both cases, the cheese model used was a Saint-Nectaire AOC.
Trials at the pilot scale were carried out in two experimental ripening chambers of 4.2 m3 each.  After adaptation of their aeraulic operating conditions, ripening trials were conducted in order to compare continuous ventilation with sequential ventilation in terms of energy costs, ripening kinetics and the final quality of the Saint-Nectaire cheeses.  Sequential ventilation protocols with ventilation off from 50 to 66% of the total ripening time, applied over short time periods (10 to 15 min cycles) were tested.  They led to energy savings assessed at approximately 18% of the electricity costs of pilot ripening chambers.  They had no significant impact on the microbiological, physico-chemical or biochemical development of the cheeses whose final quality was not affected.
During industrial trials, the aeraulics within the ripening chamber studied (1,300 m3) was mapped.  The sequential ventilation protocol was then adapted to the size of the chamber by increasing the length of the cycles up to 60 min (successive 30 min intervals with or without ventilation).  Moreover, a sequential ventilation mode not based on time but on the temperature of the ripening chamber (with two thresholds, high and low, differing by 0.4, 0.7 or 1°C) was tested. The results obtained are promising because the electrical energy savings are proportional to the savings in ventilation time at this level, that is, 50% and as much as 60% of the time.  At the pilot scale, the microbiological, physico-chemical and biochemical development of the cheeses and their final quality appeared not to be affected by the fractionated ventilation.  

Applying sequential ventilation to other types of cheeses and ripening rooms  

In order to be implemented at the industrial scale, these results still require several stages of validation, taking the following into consideration:

  • other types of cheeses, particularly those with a high degree of respiratory activity such as soft cheeses with a bloomy rind
  • other types of ripening chambers with capacities, geometries and control modes different from those tested at the industrial scale

See also

  • Effect of sequential ventilation on cheese ripening and energy consumption in pilot ripening rooms D. Picque, H. Guillemin, P.S. Mirade, R. Didienne, R. Lavigne, B. Perret, M.C. Montel, G. Corrieu. International Dairy Journal 19 (2009) 489-497
  • The true food european project