Rangées de graines.. © INRA, Elena Schweitzer © Fotolia

Our results

Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Human milk digestion in the preterm infant: impact of technological treatments
  3. Research & Innovation 2017 - For Food and Biobased Products
  4. The way in which proteins aggregate when heated may change their sensitising potency
  5. Enhancing the viability of spray-dried probiotic bacteria by stimulating their stress tolerance
  6. To stick or not to stick? Pulling pili sheds new light on biofilm formation
  7. When biopolymers selfassemble: a balance between energy and entropy.
  8. Mimicking the gastrointestinal digestion in a lab-on-a-chip:the microdigester
  9. How a milk droplet becomes a powder grain
  10. Research & Innovation 2016 - For Food and Bioproducts
  11. A new process for the biorefining of plants
  12. Under the UV light : the bacterial membrane
  13. Reverse engineering or how to rebuild ... bread!
  14. Green Chemistry: a step towards lipid production in yeast
  15. Individually designed neo-enzymes for antibacterial vaccines
  16. Multi-scale mechanical modelling: from the nanometric scale to the macroscopic properties of bread crumb
  17. Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats
  18. Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes
  19. The discrete role of ferulic acid in the assembly of lignified cell wall
  20. Eco-design of composites made from wood co-products
  21. Analysis of volatile compounds enables the authentication of a poultry production system
  22. Nanoparticles as capping agents for biopolymers microscopy
  23. Pasteurisation, UHT, microfiltration...All the processes don't affect the nutritional quality of milk in the same way
  24. Integration of expert knowledge applied to cheese ripening
  25. Controlling cheese mass loss during ripening
  26. The shape memory of starch
  27. Research & Innovation 2015 - For Food & Biobased Products
  28. Behaviour of casein micelles during milk filtering operations
  29. Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  30. Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings
  31. An innovative process to extract bioactive compounds from wheat
  32. Diffusion weighted MRI: a generic tool for the microimaging of lipids in food matrices
  33. Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry
  34. New enzyme activity detectors made from semi-reflective biopolymer nanolayers
  35. Improving our knowledge about the structure of the casein micelle
  36. Heating milk seems to favour the development of allergy in infants
  37. Fun with Shape
  38. Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants
  39. SensinMouth, when taste makes sense
  40. A decision support system for the fresh fruit and vegetable chain based on a knowledge engineering approach
  41. SOLEIL casts light on the 3D structure of proteins responsible for the stabilisation of storage lipids in oilseed plants
  42. A close-up view of the multi-scale protein assembly process
  43. Controlling the drying of infant dairy products by taking water-constituent interactions into account
  44. Polysccharide nanocrystals to stabilise pickering emulsions
  45. Discovery of new degradative enzymes of plant polysaccharides in the human intestinal microbiome
  46. A durum wheat flour adapted for the production of traditional baguettes
  47. Virtual modelling to guide the construction of « tailored-made » enzymes
  48. How far can we reduce the salt content of cooked meat products?
  49. Diffusion of organic substances in polymer materials: beyond existing scaling laws
  50. Smart Foams : various ways to destroy foams on demand !
  51. Dates, rich in tannins and yet neither bitter nor astringent
  52. Sodium content reduction in food
  53. Research & Innovation 2014

Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats

The milling value of a wheat corresponds to its ability to produce high yields of flour of a defined purity at the lowest possible manufacturing cost. However, the milling industry does not have an effective tool for assessing this characteristic at this time. A consortium was formed by nine partners from public research, technical institutes and the cereal industry with the aim of developing such a tool. They developed equipment and a method for assessing the milling value of wheats over several harvest years, based on milling tests of over 100 batches of wheat of different genetic and geographic origins. The minimill is thus capable of predicting flour yield with only 500 g of wheat. The flours obtained have characteristics comparable to those of an industrial flour and can thus also be used to assess breadmaking potential (baking and biscuit quality). This equipment, patented by INRA, the Chopin Company and Arvalis-Institut du Végétal, will be commercialised in the near future. It will fulfil many of the sector’s expectations.

Milling efficiency: the most important quality trait of wheat

When wheat is processed in view of being used as food for human consumption, its milling efficiency is the first quality criterion of interest to the sector.  It represents an asset to be developed, both to satisfy the expectations of the primary processing industries, as well as to promote grain market exports.
The milling efficiency of a wheat corresponds to its ability to produce high flour yield of a defined purity at the lowest possible manufacturing cost (energy expenses).  Determining this characteristic involves the implementation of direct analyses (manufacturing protocols) or indirect analyses of quality assessment (physical or chemical analyses).  However, no real tool to assess this characteristic exists at this time.
A research consortium consisting of INRA and eight partners covering all of the different aspects of the cereal sector (from breeders to cereal end-product processers) was organised in 2003 to study the physico-chemical and structural bases of the milling efficiency of wheat and to develop new methods for assessing it.  

A prototype to predict the milling behaviour of different types of wheat  

On the basis of a prototype developed by INRA, a minimill was designed in partnership with the Chopin Company and Arvalis-Institut du Végétal. A specific mill flow diagram including two milling stages on fluted rolls and three semolina reduction stages on smooth rolls makes it possible to obtain flour yields of approximately 75%.
By pre-setting all of the adjustments and by automating the different milling stages, the minimill has proved to be easy to implement, with good productivity (approximately 10 milling trials/day).  The results obtained have a very good repeatability, enabling a fine discrimination between the wheats.  The comparison of results with those obtained with a reference mill equipped with four break rolls, four sizing rolls and six reducing rolls showed that the minimill made it possible to predict the milling behaviour of batches of different types of wheat.

…And to predict flour yields and the degree of bran cleaning

On the basis of milling tests on over 100 batches of wheat with different genetic origins, different agro-environmental cropping conditions, as well as different harvest years, it was shown that the minimill made it possible to predict not only the total flour yield but the yields of break and reduction flours, as well as the degree of bran cleaning.
Finally, a complementary study was carried out to optimise the parameterisation of the prototype, especially to adjust the damaged starch content and to obtain flours with characteristics similar to those obtained in the industry.  Under these conditions, the rheological properties of flour doughs measured with a Chopin alveograph are comparable to those obtained in an industrial mill.     

Milling flow diagram of a "minimill" prototype

Fig. 1).  By making it possible to assess both the milling efficiency and the baking quality of wheats, this highly polyvalent minimill should satisfy the many needs of partners in the cereal sector – from breeding programmes to the optimisation of milling wheat mixtures.. © INRA
Fig. 1). By making it possible to assess both the milling efficiency and the baking quality of wheats, this highly polyvalent minimill should satisfy the many needs of partners in the cereal sector – from breeding programmes to the optimisation of milling wheat mixtures. © INRA

A minimill to be launched in 2011

A patent covering the equipment and the method for assessing the milling efficiency were filed in co-ownership with the Chopin Company and Arvalis-Institut du Végétal. This new equipment should be on the market as of 2011 (see prototype, Fig. 1).  By making it possible to assess both the milling efficiency and the baking quality of wheats, this highly polyvalent minimill should satisfy the many needs of partners in the cereal sector – from breeding programmes to the optimisation of milling wheat mixtures.

See also

  • ABECASSIS J., BAR-L’HELGOUACH C., CHAURAND M., DUBAT A., GEOFFROY S., PUJOL R. 2009. Procédé et appareil de fabrication simplifiée, d’une mouture de blés de référence. Brevet n° 0905572 déposé le 20/11/2009.
  • ABECASSIS J. , BAR L’HELGOUACH C., DUBAT A., GREFFEUILLE V. AND LULLIEN-PELLERIN V. 2007. Predicting the milling efficiency of wheat grain.1st Latin American ICC Conference, Rosario, Argentina, 23-26 September.
  • BAR L’HELGOUACH C., TOMMY-MARTIN V., CHAURAND M., ABECASSIS J. 2004. Prediction of the milling value of common wheat using an instrumentally controlled micromill. Poster, 12th ICC Cereal & Bread Congress "UCST 2004". 24-26 may, Harrogate, UK.