Rangées de graines.. © INRA, Elena Schweitzer © Fotolia

Our results

Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Human milk digestion in the preterm infant: impact of technological treatments
  3. Research & Innovation 2017 - For Food and Biobased Products
  4. The way in which proteins aggregate when heated may change their sensitising potency
  5. Enhancing the viability of spray-dried probiotic bacteria by stimulating their stress tolerance
  6. To stick or not to stick? Pulling pili sheds new light on biofilm formation
  7. When biopolymers selfassemble: a balance between energy and entropy.
  8. Mimicking the gastrointestinal digestion in a lab-on-a-chip:the microdigester
  9. How a milk droplet becomes a powder grain
  10. Research & Innovation 2016 - For Food and Bioproducts
  11. A new process for the biorefining of plants
  12. Under the UV light : the bacterial membrane
  13. Reverse engineering or how to rebuild ... bread!
  14. Green Chemistry: a step towards lipid production in yeast
  15. Individually designed neo-enzymes for antibacterial vaccines
  16. Multi-scale mechanical modelling: from the nanometric scale to the macroscopic properties of bread crumb
  17. Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats
  18. Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes
  19. The discrete role of ferulic acid in the assembly of lignified cell wall
  20. Eco-design of composites made from wood co-products
  21. Analysis of volatile compounds enables the authentication of a poultry production system
  22. Nanoparticles as capping agents for biopolymers microscopy
  23. Pasteurisation, UHT, microfiltration...All the processes don't affect the nutritional quality of milk in the same way
  24. Integration of expert knowledge applied to cheese ripening
  25. Controlling cheese mass loss during ripening
  26. The shape memory of starch
  27. Research & Innovation 2015 - For Food & Biobased Products
  28. Behaviour of casein micelles during milk filtering operations
  29. Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  30. Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings
  31. An innovative process to extract bioactive compounds from wheat
  32. Diffusion weighted MRI: a generic tool for the microimaging of lipids in food matrices
  33. Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry
  34. New enzyme activity detectors made from semi-reflective biopolymer nanolayers
  35. Improving our knowledge about the structure of the casein micelle
  36. Heating milk seems to favour the development of allergy in infants
  37. Fun with Shape
  38. Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants
  39. SensinMouth, when taste makes sense
  40. A decision support system for the fresh fruit and vegetable chain based on a knowledge engineering approach
  41. SOLEIL casts light on the 3D structure of proteins responsible for the stabilisation of storage lipids in oilseed plants
  42. A close-up view of the multi-scale protein assembly process
  43. Controlling the drying of infant dairy products by taking water-constituent interactions into account
  44. Polysccharide nanocrystals to stabilise pickering emulsions
  45. Discovery of new degradative enzymes of plant polysaccharides in the human intestinal microbiome
  46. A durum wheat flour adapted for the production of traditional baguettes
  47. Virtual modelling to guide the construction of « tailored-made » enzymes
  48. How far can we reduce the salt content of cooked meat products?
  49. Diffusion of organic substances in polymer materials: beyond existing scaling laws
  50. Smart Foams : various ways to destroy foams on demand !
  51. Dates, rich in tannins and yet neither bitter nor astringent
  52. Sodium content reduction in food
  53. Research & Innovation 2014

Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes

In the 20th century, fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil) were a key force in the growth of our societies. In the 21st century, the use of the biomass for energy and chemical purposes is considered to be a realistic economic perspective whose sustainability conditions must be studied with due consideration for its interactions with the food sector. INRA has chosen to meet the challenge of an integrated approach for agrofuels, agromaterials and new molecules, aware that the development of plant chemistry means taking the complexity of the plant in its entirety into consideration.

Producting lipids by oleaginous microorganisms for aeronautic uses

The development of new controlled production and storage processes for fatty acids with well-defined structures is a major challenge if we are to address the rarefaction of fossil energies while meeting current environmental demands.
Within this context, the production of lipids by oleaginous microorganisms, while allowing the conversion of agricultural substrates into triglycerides, presents unquestionable advantages in relation to the traditional vegetable oil production sectors by avoiding the use of agricultural areas for non-food purposes as well as the use of genetically modified oilseed plant crops.  
The aim of our research is to enhance the accumulation, modulate the profile of fatty acids found in microbial triglycerides and to transform them through enzymatic pathways in relation to predefined use limits.
Research carried out within the framework of a project involving the transportation and petroleum sectors and yeast manufacturers, and supported by the French National Research Agency, the French National Energy Agency, the CNRS, INRA and the European Union, have pooled their expertise in biology, genetic, microbiological and enzymatic engineering, as well as in bioprocesses, to study the production of specific lipids from yeasts  to be used as additives or substitutes for kerosene.
This research has terminated in the following critical results:

  • The identification of enzymes and mechanisms involved in an oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, in the synthesis, storage, degradation and modulation of the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, made it possible, through genetic modification, to orient the carbon flow towards the specific synthesis and storage of lipids of interest with an optimised accumulation rate and productivity.

Accumulation of lipides by modified Y. lipolitica strains     
Accumulation de lipides par des souches de Y. lipolytica modifiées dans la voie de biosynthèse (Dgut2) et dans la voie de dégradation des acides gras b-oxydation.(A, B) souche sauvage, (C, D) souche Dgut2, (E, F) souche Dgut2 Dpox1-6.Les lipides accumulés sont visualisés par une coloration au rouge Nil (B, D, F).Tiré de Beopoulos et al., 2008, Control of lipid accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 7779-7789.. © INRA
Accumulation de lipides par des souches de Y. lipolytica modifiées dans la voie de biosynthèse (Dgut2) et dans la voie de dégradation des acides gras b-oxydation.(A, B) souche sauvage, (C, D) souche Dgut2, (E, F) souche Dgut2 Dpox1-6.Les lipides accumulés sont visualisés par une coloration au rouge Nil (B, D, F).Tiré de Beopoulos et al., 2008, Control of lipid accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 7779-7789. © INRA
Accumulation of lipids by modified Y. lipolytica strains in the biosynthesis pathway (Δgut2) and in the degradation pathway of fatty acids (Δ-oxidation).
(A, B) wild strain, (C, D) Δgut2 strain, (E, F) Δgut2 Δpox1-6 strain.
The accumulated lipids are visualised by a Nile red stain (B, D, F).
From Beopoulos et al., 2008, Control of lipid accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 7779-7789.

  • The modelling of metabolic flows, linked to an innovative fermentation strategy, made it possible to preferentially orient the flow of carbon substrate towards lipid metabolism, with very high performances.
  • The esterification of microbial lipids to modify their properties in relation to aeronautic use constraints was carried out using enzymatic biocatalysis with a high rate of productivity.
  • The observation, characterisation and quantification of morphological developments and of the rheological behaviour of cell cultures made it possible to reveal genetic modifications targeting the lipidic metabolism of strains as well as the factors affecting the physical properties of the must and the performances of the bioprocess.

Photos : Cultures cellulaires de 2 souches de Yarrowia lipolytica (une souche sauvage -A- et une souche modifiée -B-,) illustrant leurs différences et évolutions morphologiques (vues obtenues par microscopie, x100, contraste de phase).. © INRA
Photos : Cultures cellulaires de 2 souches de Yarrowia lipolytica (une souche sauvage -A- et une souche modifiée -B-,) illustrant leurs différences et évolutions morphologiques (vues obtenues par microscopie, x100, contraste de phase). © INRA

Illustration of the morphology of two strains of Y. lipolytica (microscopy, x100, phase contrast) and the evolution of the distribution of the population size during culture (Experiments A and C).  

This research continues with the integration of plant genetic resources for the purpose of obtaining specific lipids intended for industrial and, specifically, pharmaceutical purposes

Partners

Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes Biologiques et des Procédés, INRA - CNRS - INSA, Toulouse, Carole Jouve, Luc Fillaudeau
Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Génétique Moléculaire, INRA - CNRS - AgroParisTech, Grignon, Jean Marc Nicaud
Unité de Chimie Biologique, INRA - AgroParisTech, Grignon, Thierry Chardot
Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse, INP-UPS-CNRS Toulouse, France, Dominique-Anne Archard

See also

  • Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  • Nicaud J.M., Chardot T., Beopoulos A. (2008) Nouvelles souches de levures mutantes capables d’accumuler une grande quantité de lipides. Brevet FR 08.54786.
  • Uribellarea J.L., Molina-Jouve C, Costes P., Cescut J. (2008)
  • CNRS/Airbus 08/07252 « Nouveau procédé de culture de levures du genre Yarrowia »
  • Beopoulos, A., Mrozova, Z., Theveniau, F., Le Dall, M.-T., Hapala, I., Papanicolaou, S., Chardot, T., Nicaud, J.-M. (2008) Mastering lipid accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Appl Env Microbiol., 74(24):7779-7789. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 7779-7789.