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Rangées de graines.. © INRA, Elena Schweitzer © Fotolia

Our results

Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Research and Innovation 2018 - For Food and Biobased Products
  3. Dry-cured ham: a process simulator can now define routes of manufacture that yield lower-salt products
  4. Does organically-farmed meat contain fewer chemical contaminants?
  5. The way in which proteins aggregate when heated may change their sensitising potency
  6. Enhancing the viability of spray-dried probiotic bacteria by stimulating their stress tolerance
  7. Human milk digestion in the preterm infant: impact of technological treatments
  8. Research & Innovation 2017 - For Food and Biobased Products
  9. To stick or not to stick? Pulling pili sheds new light on biofilm formation
  10. When biopolymers selfassemble: a balance between energy and entropy.
  11. Mimicking the gastrointestinal digestion in a lab-on-a-chip:the microdigester
  12. How a milk droplet becomes a powder grain
  13. Research & Innovation 2016 - For Food and Bioproducts
  14. A new process for the biorefining of plants
  15. Under the UV light : the bacterial membrane
  16. Reverse engineering or how to rebuild ... bread!
  17. Green Chemistry: a step towards lipid production in yeast
  18. Individually designed neo-enzymes for antibacterial vaccines
  19. Multi-scale mechanical modelling: from the nanometric scale to the macroscopic properties of bread crumb
  20. Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats
  21. Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes
  22. The discrete role of ferulic acid in the assembly of lignified cell wall
  23. Eco-design of composites made from wood co-products
  24. Analysis of volatile compounds enables the authentication of a poultry production system
  25. Nanoparticles as capping agents for biopolymers microscopy
  26. Pasteurisation, UHT, microfiltration...All the processes don't affect the nutritional quality of milk in the same way
  27. Integration of expert knowledge applied to cheese ripening
  28. Controlling cheese mass loss during ripening
  29. The shape memory of starch
  30. Research & Innovation 2015 - For Food & Biobased Products
  31. Behaviour of casein micelles during milk filtering operations
  32. Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  33. Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings
  34. An innovative process to extract bioactive compounds from wheat
  35. Diffusion weighted MRI: a generic tool for the microimaging of lipids in food matrices
  36. Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry
  37. New enzyme activity detectors made from semi-reflective biopolymer nanolayers
  38. Improving our knowledge about the structure of the casein micelle
  39. Heating milk seems to favour the development of allergy in infants
  40. Fun with Shape
  41. Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants
  42. SensinMouth, when taste makes sense
  43. A decision support system for the fresh fruit and vegetable chain based on a knowledge engineering approach
  44. SOLEIL casts light on the 3D structure of proteins responsible for the stabilisation of storage lipids in oilseed plants
  45. A close-up view of the multi-scale protein assembly process
  46. Controlling the drying of infant dairy products by taking water-constituent interactions into account
  47. Polysccharide nanocrystals to stabilise pickering emulsions
  48. Discovery of new degradative enzymes of plant polysaccharides in the human intestinal microbiome
  49. A durum wheat flour adapted for the production of traditional baguettes
  50. Virtual modelling to guide the construction of « tailored-made » enzymes
  51. How far can we reduce the salt content of cooked meat products?
  52. Diffusion of organic substances in polymer materials: beyond existing scaling laws
  53. Smart Foams : various ways to destroy foams on demand !
  54. Dates, rich in tannins and yet neither bitter nor astringent
  55. Sodium content reduction in food
  56. Research & Innovation 2014

Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants

Environmental micropollutants such as dioxins (PCDD/Fs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (PBDEs, HBCD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and veterinary products are effectively transferred to animal tissue and eventually find their way to animal-based food products where they present a risk to human health. Detecting exposure of the food chain to these substances through the analysis of meat and dairy projects is a major challenge for ensuring the safety of these sectors. Scientists at INRA are studying the volatile metabolite signature in meat products to trace the exposure of animals to micropollutants during their production. This approach appears to be particularly promising in the case of contamination by micropollutants that are rapidly metabolised by the animal and, therefore, undetectable in the final product.

Poulets de train de rôtir.. © INRA, CAIN Anne-Hélène

Are volatile compounds proof of animal exposure to environmental micropollutants?

Revealing the exposure of livestock to micropollutants a posteriori through the analysis of meat and dairy products is one of the major challenges facing research today to guarantee food chain safety.  The typical approach that consists of directly quantifying micropollutant residues in contaminated animal tissue is only applicable to micropollutants that are slowly metabolised by the animal.  It is therefore necessary to develop alternative approaches for constituents whose toxicity is known but that are rapidly metabolised.  An effective solution consists of measuring the metabolic stress induced by the exposure of the animal to these micropollutants by characterising changes in the composition of compounds in animal tissue at the end of the metabolic chain, particularly volatile ones (Fig. 1).

Explanatory scheme of the two approaches that may be used to back-trace poultry exposure to micropollutants based on analyses of animal tissues. The “residue quantification” approach is suitable for slowly metabolized micropollutants whereas the “metabolic signature” is dedicated to reveal exposure to rapidly metabolized micropollutants  (© ACS).. © INRA
Explanatory scheme of the two approaches that may be used to back-trace poultry exposure to micropollutants based on analyses of animal tissues. The “residue quantification” approach is suitable for slowly metabolized micropollutants whereas the “metabolic signature” is dedicated to reveal exposure to rapidly metabolized micropollutants (© ACS). © INRA

Metabolic signatures reveal animal exposure to rapidly metabolised micropollutants

Researchers at INRA evaluated the validity of these "volatile compound metabolic signatures" for detecting animal exposure to different families of micropollutants.  The meat chicken was chosen as the model animal.  At the same time that a control group was fed with standard feed, five groups of chickens were fed with the same feed expressly contaminated with dioxins, PCBs, PAHs, brominated flame retardants (PBDEs) and coccidiostats, respectively.  After seven weeks, the tissues (liver, fatty tissue, muscle) were sampled and analysed using both residue quantification reference methods (GC-HRMS, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS) and direct MS techniques to generate global volatile compound signatures.
The livers of animals contaminated with rapidly metabolised micropollutants such as PAHs or PBDEs reveal volatile compound signatures that are clearly different from those of the control (Fig. 2), whereas, for example, the concentrations of PAHs measured in the livers by the reference method (GC-MS/MS) are not different from those of the control animals.  Similar conclusions were reached in a second experiment carried out on laying hens contaminated and then "decontaminated" with a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, which has sparked an increasing interest on the part of health authorities and the scientific community. On the other hand, the quantification of residues such as dioxins and PCBs confirms the significant accumulation of these substances in the liver, whereas the absence of a distinctive volatile compound signature confirms their slow metabolisation. Confirmation of these findings on other tissues and more frequently consumed animal products such as meat and eggs will soon be published.

 

The first principle component analysis design carried out on data from direct-MS volatile compound signatures of chicken livers contaminated or not with PBDEs (A) or PAHs (B) reveals a distinctive metabolic activation in the case of exposure (© ACS).. © INRA
The first principle component analysis design carried out on data from direct-MS volatile compound signatures of chicken livers contaminated or not with PBDEs (A) or PAHs (B) reveals a distinctive metabolic activation in the case of exposure (© ACS). © INRA

A :
Principle component 2 (6%)
Principle component 1 (85%)
Chickens contaminated with PBDEs
Healthy chickens
B :
Principle component 2 (5%)
Principle component 1 (84%)
Chickens contaminated with PAHs
Healthy chickens

Towards a new generation of methods to trace contamination of the food chain

Research carried out in the past mainly focused on rough metabolic signatures of the volatile fraction of animal products.  Scientists today aim at using more detailed signatures to identify the specific biomarkers of different types of contamination.  This information is now available at the molecular scale thanks to the use of "high resolution" analytical techniques such as systematic two-dimensional chromatography, combined with "time-of-flight"-type mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS/TOF), making it possible to purify, identify and quantify the volatile compounds of interest.  On the medium term, the monitoring of biomarkers revealed by these "omic" methods could lead to the broad-spectrum detection of exposure of the food chain to rapidly metabolised contaminants such as PAHs, brominated flame retardants, pesticides and veterinary products.  This research could open the way to a new generation of reference methods for detecting specific compounds that are difficult to access through the direct quantification of residues or of their identified degradation products.  As a result of their non-targeted character, these approaches could also prove interesting to reveal the activation of previously unimagined metabolic pathways.      

Partnership

ONIRIS,laboratory of residues and contaminants in food, (LABERCA), Nantes : Reference analysis of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDs, HAPs.
Laboratory of Veterinary Drugs (LERMVD), Fougères : reference analysis of coccidiostats
UR AFPA, USC 340 INRA, Equipe « micropolluants et résidus dans la chaîne alimentaire » Nancy Université : controlled contamination and production of chicken's flesh
URA-ITAVI, Nouzilly, France : production of laying hens.
Most of these experiments have been funded under the European project SIGMA-CHAIN (2005-2009) No. FP6-518451 (www.sigmachain.eu).

Références

See also

  • Berge P.,  Ratel J., Fournier A., Jondreville C., Feidt C., Roudaut B., Le Bizec B., Engel E. Use of Volatile Compound Metabolic Signatures in Poultry Liver to Back-Trace Dietary Exposure to Rapidly Metabolized Xenobiotics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 6584–6591.
  • Ratel, J., Engel, E. 2012. Back-tracing poultry meat chain exposure to rapidly metabolized pollutants using volatile compound metabolic signatures in liver tissues. The Column. 8, 2-10.
  • Fournier A., & Feidt C., Marchand P., Vénisseau A., Le Bizec B., Sellier N., Engel E, Ratel J., Travel A., Jondreville C. Kinetic study of γ-hexabromocyclododecane orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2012, 19, 440-44