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Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Human milk digestion in the preterm infant: impact of technological treatments
  3. Research & Innovation 2017 - For Food and Biobased Products
  4. The way in which proteins aggregate when heated may change their sensitising potency
  5. Enhancing the viability of spray-dried probiotic bacteria by stimulating their stress tolerance
  6. To stick or not to stick? Pulling pili sheds new light on biofilm formation
  7. When biopolymers selfassemble: a balance between energy and entropy.
  8. Mimicking the gastrointestinal digestion in a lab-on-a-chip:the microdigester
  9. How a milk droplet becomes a powder grain
  10. Research & Innovation 2016 - For Food and Bioproducts
  11. A new process for the biorefining of plants
  12. Under the UV light : the bacterial membrane
  13. Reverse engineering or how to rebuild ... bread!
  14. Green Chemistry: a step towards lipid production in yeast
  15. Individually designed neo-enzymes for antibacterial vaccines
  16. Multi-scale mechanical modelling: from the nanometric scale to the macroscopic properties of bread crumb
  17. Minimill: 500 g to assess the milling value of soft wheats
  18. Microbial production of lipids for energy or chemical purposes
  19. The discrete role of ferulic acid in the assembly of lignified cell wall
  20. Eco-design of composites made from wood co-products
  21. Analysis of volatile compounds enables the authentication of a poultry production system
  22. Nanoparticles as capping agents for biopolymers microscopy
  23. Pasteurisation, UHT, microfiltration...All the processes don't affect the nutritional quality of milk in the same way
  24. Integration of expert knowledge applied to cheese ripening
  25. Controlling cheese mass loss during ripening
  26. The shape memory of starch
  27. Research & Innovation 2015 - For Food & Biobased Products
  28. Behaviour of casein micelles during milk filtering operations
  29. Overaccumulation of lipids by the yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of biokerosine
  30. Sequential ventilation in cheese ripening rooms: 50% electrical energy savings
  31. An innovative process to extract bioactive compounds from wheat
  32. Diffusion weighted MRI: a generic tool for the microimaging of lipids in food matrices
  33. Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry
  34. New enzyme activity detectors made from semi-reflective biopolymer nanolayers
  35. Improving our knowledge about the structure of the casein micelle
  36. Heating milk seems to favour the development of allergy in infants
  37. Fun with Shape
  38. Using volatile metabolites in meat products to detect livestock contamination by environmental micropollutants
  39. SensinMouth, when taste makes sense
  40. A decision support system for the fresh fruit and vegetable chain based on a knowledge engineering approach
  41. SOLEIL casts light on the 3D structure of proteins responsible for the stabilisation of storage lipids in oilseed plants
  42. A close-up view of the multi-scale protein assembly process
  43. Controlling the drying of infant dairy products by taking water-constituent interactions into account
  44. Polysccharide nanocrystals to stabilise pickering emulsions
  45. Discovery of new degradative enzymes of plant polysaccharides in the human intestinal microbiome
  46. A durum wheat flour adapted for the production of traditional baguettes
  47. Virtual modelling to guide the construction of « tailored-made » enzymes
  48. How far can we reduce the salt content of cooked meat products?
  49. Diffusion of organic substances in polymer materials: beyond existing scaling laws
  50. Smart Foams : various ways to destroy foams on demand !
  51. Dates, rich in tannins and yet neither bitter nor astringent
  52. Sodium content reduction in food
  53. Research & Innovation 2014

Characterization of a major gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry

Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the red or blue colour of flowers and fruits in many plant species. By combining transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, it was possible to characterise a gene involved in the methylation of anthocyanins in grape berry. This gene, characterised for the first time in a plant species, is of particular importance since methylation modifies the colour (from red towards violet) and increases the stability of anthocyanins, which is essential for the quality of fruits, juices and red wines, as well as for the use of anthocyanin extracts as natural colouring agents.

Updated on 06/17/2013
Published on 06/05/2013
Keywords:

Anthocyanins are pigments responsible for the red or blue colour of many plants and the major determinants of the quality of fruits, juices and red wines

The large majority of anthocyanins in grape berry have the particularity of being methylated, which intensifies their colour and provides them with a high degree of stability, thus ensuring their effective conservation in grape juices and wines.  Because of its particular composition, grape is one of the best sources of natural red colouring agents.  Although the biosynthesis pathway of anthocyanins is well known, the genes involved in their methylation had never been characterised.

Characterization of a gene involved in the methylation of anthocyanins

The combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches made it possible to characterise a gene encoding an anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) responsible for the methylation of anthocyanins in grape berry (Hugueney et al., 2009). This gene was first identified due to its strong expression in red grape berries (Ageorges et al., 2006) and because it is one of the major targets of the VvMybA1 transcription factor, which regulates the biosynthesis pathway of anthocyanins (Cutanda-Perez et al., 2009). The functional characterisation of this gene was carried out by studying the corresponding protein activity in vitro and in planta, after expression in tobacco.  This research, which constitutes the first characterisation of this gene in plants, is the outcome of a partnership between the SVQV Joint Research Unit (Colmar) and the SPO Joint Research Unit (Montpellier) in France, and the University of Turin (Italy).
The characterisation of this key gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry is a step forward in understanding the regulation of this biosynthesis pathway, which is of outmost importance given the role of these pigments in wine quality.  The control of methylation also provides a considerable advantage for the use of anthocyanin pigments as natural colouring agents.  This research is currently being pursued through the study of the diversity of AOMT genes in different grape varieties and through their impact on the degree of anthocyanin methylation in grape berry.

Influence of methylation on anthocyanin colour

Characterisation of the activity of anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) from grapevine by transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana)

From left to right:1: Tobacco leaf extract – control2: Tobacco leaf extract expressing an activator gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis3: Tobacco leaf extract co-expressing an activator gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis and the grapevine AOMT gene: anthocyanin methylation intensifies their colour.. © INRA
From left to right:1: Tobacco leaf extract – control2: Tobacco leaf extract expressing an activator gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis3: Tobacco leaf extract co-expressing an activator gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis and the grapevine AOMT gene: anthocyanin methylation intensifies their colour. © INRA

 

Références

See also

  • Hugueney P, Provenzano S, Verries C, Ferrandino A, Meudec E, Batelli G, Merdinoglu D, Cheynier V, Schubert A, Ageorges A. (2009) A novel cation-dependent O-methyltransferase involved in anthocyanin methylation in grapevine. Plant Physiol. 150, 2057-2070.